Special Study Section - A Study of the Types in the book of Esther
Some of the “higher critics” speculate that the book of Esther should not be included in the Canon of books that make up the Bible because God is not expressly mentioned. But Esther is about the providential hand of God working through Esther, and her guardian Mordecai to save the Jews from extinction. They acted in through faith and supplication and God prospered their work. They were therefore mindful of God throughout (Esther 4:1,14,16). To this day, in the Jewish religious calendar there is a remembrance of Esther’s feast, and Jews the world over celebrate God’s deliverance from Haman’s decreed Genocide in the feast of Purim in March every year.
Also, in the word of God there are often Types and Shadows, and when we perceive the types in Esther, we see a continuous thread covering the events of Israel from the first Temple period to the rule of Christ on earth. Only in the word of God do we get such types.
For some time we puzzled over the types in Esther and could not make sense of them, until it was suggested that in Esther and Mordecai we have represented two main aspects of Christ – his Priesthood and Kingship – then a clear picture emerged.
It may seem odd that an aspect of Christ could be typified in a female, but in a union of Priest and King, the King aspect must be figured as male and therefore the Priesthood as female – and of course, “after the order of Melchisedec”, Christ combines both Priest and King aspects (Hebrews 7:1-11).
An example of priesthood being associated with a female type is the fact that, the saints, the bride (female) of Christ, are also figured as Priests, even “an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices” (1 Peter 2:5).
We will begin by laying out some of the types we wish to illustrates as we go through the book of Esther, as follows:-
King Ahasuerus representing: God
Esther representing: the Priesthood of Christ
Mordecai representing: the Kingship of Christ
Haman representing: the king of the north (Dan 11:36 Rome v40 Gog)
Haman’s 10 sons representing: the ten kings of Europe
Haman’s wife Zeresh representing: the Papacy (latter days)
Vashti. representing: the Mosaic Economy and priesthood
On this last point (Vashti- representing: the Mosaic Economy and priesthood) we note the following:
“What shall we do unto the queen Vashti according to law, because she hath not performed the commandment of the king Ahasuerus by the chamberlains?” (Est. 1:15)
The priesthood of the Mosaic Economy “had not performed the commandment of the King” of heaven, Yahweh, and so they were judged “according to law,” and cast off.
“If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she” (Est. 1:19).
The Priesthood better than that of The Law, is the Priesthood of Christ, after the order of Melchisedec.
When the First Temple was destroyed and the throne abolished, (6th cent.BC) the Mosaic economy was suspended for the duration of the 70 years captivity, after which it was only partially restored. The Ark and the kingship were gone, and the Priesthood was without Urim and Thummim (Ezra 2:63). It was now the age of the gentiles; dominating Jerusalem, The Land and the (once) chosen nation. Also the need for the “better Hope” of a better, future restoration, and a better priesthood became evident, such that the faithful were left “waiting for the consolation of Israel”.
We think that the Mosaic Economy and priesthood being thus downgraded is typified in Vashti being deselected as Queen. It was then 4 years before Esther was selected as Queen, that is, from the third to the seventh year of King Ahasuerus:
“Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for his daughter, was come to go in unto the king, she required nothing but what Hegai the king’s chamberlain, the keeper of the women, appointed. And Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her. So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign. And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti” (Est. 2:15-17)
In antitype this would bring us to the time of Christ, but Christ did not actually assume his Priesthood (his mediatorship), until his resurrection to immortality, as:
“And it is yet far more evident: for that after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest, Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.” (Heb. 7:15-16)
Later we will see that Esther comes to typify this Priesthood after undergoing a typical death and resurrection. But first we have Esther relating to the time of Christ’s pilgrimage.
Mordecai, Esther’s guardian, was a palace official when he discovered a plot against the King:
“In those days, while Mordecai sat in the king’s gate, two of the king’s chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those which kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hand on the king Ahasuerus. And the thing was known to Mordecai, who told it unto Esther the queen; and Esther certified the king thereof in Mordecai’s name. And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king” (Est. 2:21-23).
Mordecai sat in the king’s gate as if awaiting the call to rulership.
Bigthan and Teresh, “of those which kept the door” would, we think, typify the Pharisees & Sadducees, who ran “the Council” (Sanhedrin) and the Temple and administered the Law of Moses. They were “of those which kept the door” (v21) but they were found to be unfaithful to God, the Great King, as:
“Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.” (Mat. 16:6)
Christ reported their mischief-so they stood condemned before God.
“But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.” (Mat. 23:13).
They planned to prevent the kingship and take over themselves:
“But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.” (Mat. 21:38).
So we think Bigthan and Teresh, “which kept the door” typify the Pharisees & Sadducees at the time of Christ who kept the door in a bad way in that they “shut up the kingdom of heaven against men”.
Next we have the promotion of Human:
“After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him. (Est. 3:1)
Agag of old was the title of the Kings of the Amalekites (1 Sam.15:32) so Haman being an “Agagite” suggest he was an Amalekite of royal descent from Agag.
Haman- representing: the “king of the north” at the time of Christ, as foretold in Daniel 11:36 (that is Rome), and later as the “king of the north” (Daniel 11:40) in the end times and therefore Gog “Prince of ROSH-ia” (Ezekiel 38:2 margin)
The power and influence of the Roman Empire over the “Pleasant Land” of Israel, as the “king of the north” (Dan.11:36) and the little horn power (Dan.8:9) rose so high at the time of Christ that Rome’s governor could even defile the Temple and abuse the King of the Jews:
“There were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.” (Lu. 13:1)
“Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?” (Jno. 19:10)
So we have this power represented in the type as Haman:
“And all the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence” (Est. 3:2)
Jews in exile would often bow in respect to gentiles in authority, but no conscientious Jew could ever bow before an Amalekite, because God had sworn them to oppose Amalek until they cease to exist, as:
“And the Lord said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven” (Exo. 17:14)
“For he said, Because the Lord hath sworn that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” (Exo. 17:16)
Eventually Mordecai was pressured into confessing this Jewish position, as to why he could not bow to Haman.
“Then the king’s servants, which were in the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai, Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment? Now it came to pass, when they spake daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai’s matters would stand: for he had told them that he was a Jew”. (Est. 3:3-4)
This enraged Haman such that he determined to revers the curse of Israel’s God upon Amalek (Exodus 17:14) and instead to utterly put out the remembrance of all Jews from under heaven, as:
“And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence, then was Haman full of wrath. And he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone; for they had shewed him the people of Mordecai: wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of Mordecai” (Est. 3:5-6).
“And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus, There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws are diverse from all people; neither keep they the king’s laws: therefore it is not for the king’s profit to suffer them. If it please the king, let it be written that they may be destroyed: and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver to the hands of those that have the charge of the business, to bring it into the king’s treasuries.” (Est. 8-9)
Mordecai could see that only Queen Esther would have sufficient favour with the King so as to reverse Haman’s decree to exterminate all Jews. So Mordecai gave a copy of the decree to a messenger as follows:
“Also he gave him the copy of the writing of the decree that was given at Shushan to destroy them, to shew it unto Esther, and to declare it unto her, and to charge her that she should go in unto the king, to make supplication unto him, and to make request before him for her people” (Est. 4:8).
But to go in to the King without being called was a death sentence, unless he offered to share his power (his sceptre) with the supplicant. Queen Esther raises this point:
“Again Esther spake unto Hatach, and gave him commandment unto Mordecai: All the king’s servants, and the people of the king’s provinces, do know, that whosoever, whether man or woman, shall come unto the king into the inner court, who is not called, there is one law of his to put him to death, except such to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live: but I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days” (Est. 4:10-11).
Here Esther says: “I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days.”
On the typical principle of a day to represent a year, we see in type, reference to the 30 years that Jesus lived, before the preparation period of his 3 year ministry, after which he submitted to the sacrificial death, in hope of being accepted to life and glory.
The three and a half years ministry of Christ is typified in Esther 4:
“Then Esther bade them return Mordecai this answer, Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish” (Est. 4:15-16).
“fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day”
If we count also the day that they were in, the total period from Esther saying this would be about 3 ½ days representing the years of Christ’s ministry
But also the express mention of the 3 days and nights, could also relate to the Christ’s time in the tomb awaiting the hoped for the favour of God, the great king, on the 3rd day.
So in antitype:
“So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. As he saith also in another place, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared; Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered; And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him” (Heb. 5:5-9).
So in type:
“Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and stood in the inner court of the king’s house, over against the king’s house: and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the gate of the house. And it was so, when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favour in his sight: and the king held out to Esther the golden sceptre that was in his hand. So Esther drew near, and touched the top of the sceptre. Then said the king unto her, What wilt thou, queen Esther? and what is thy request? it shall be even given thee to the half of the kingdom.
Upon his resurrection, Christ was to make requests, one of which is foretold in:
“Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession (Psa. 2:8)”.
(Christ has been granted the power to do this but it will not be actioned till after his return.)
The first request of Esther was for the presence of the King and Haman at a banquet of wine that she had prepared:
“And Esther answered, If it seem good unto the king, let the king and Haman come this day unto the banquet that I have prepared for him. Then the king said, Cause Haman to make haste, that he may do as Esther hath said. So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared. And the king said unto Esther at the banquet of wine, What is thy petition? and it shall be granted thee: and what is thy request? even to the half of the kingdom it shall be performed” (Est. 5:4-6)
When Christ obtained life and glory and the eternal Priesthood after the order of Melchisedec (Heb.5:6) he then ‘requested’ That the Roman legions be brought against Jerusalem to destroy the city and Temple, as foretold in:
“And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince [Christ] that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined” (Dan. 9:26).
This was the Judgment upon Jerusalem for having slain the prophets and Jesus. Christ foretold this in the parable:
“But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth: and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned up their city” (Mat. 22:7).
This was fulfilled in AD70 when the Roman legions (as the unwitting sword of the Lord) destroyed Jerusalem. It was a ‘blood bath’, which is figured in the blood of the grapes at Esther’s banquet of wine. We find that wine or grapes sometimes bear this type in scripture, for example, Jerusalem laments:
“The Lord rejected all my mighty men in my midst; he summoned an assembly against me to crush my young men; the Lord has trodden as in a winepress the virgin daughter of Judah.” (Lam. 1:15)
The second request of Esther is for another banquet of wine:
“Then answered Esther, and said, My petition and my request is; f I have found favour in the sight of the king, and if it please the king to grant my petition, and to perform my request, let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare for them, and I will do tomorrow as the king hath said” (Est. 5:7-8).
After the first banquet of wine, Haman was on a high.
“Then went Haman forth that day joyful and with a glad heart: but when Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, he was full of indignation against Mordecai. Nevertheless Haman refrained himself: and when he came home, he sent and called for his friends, and Zeresh his wife” (Est. 5:9-10).
Our type for Haman is that he represents “the king of the north”. At the first banquet he represents the Power of Rome. Like Haman, Rome must have been on a high (witness the arch of Titus) believing that ‘Heaven’ was with them in their victory over the Jewish revolt, culminating in the AD70 destruction. Rome destroyed any possibility of a restoration of the Throne of David, at that time.
But whatever form “the king of the north” may have taken, from the time of the Romans to the latter days in Gog, they have always been anxious to make the restoration of the Kingdom to Israel impossible. This animosity we see in Haman, who, though exalted in power complained:
“Yet all this availeth me nothing, so long as I see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king’s gate” (Est. 5:13)
The Romans wanted the Jews to “have no king but Caesar”, and Gog, the latter day king of the north, will similarly wish to prevent any possibility that the throne of David could be restored, so in type:
“Then said Zeresh his wife and all his friends unto him, Let a gallows be made of fifty cubits high, and to morrow speak thou unto the king that Mordecai may be hanged thereon: then go thou in merrily with the king unto the banquet. And the thing pleased Haman; and he caused the gallows to be made” (Est. 5:14).
The Russian Orthodox Gog, will at first believe that God is with him, and will imagine that his faith is in the bible. But there are prophecies in the bible that speak of the restoration of the Kingdom to Israel. This could bug him, as Mordecai the Jew bugged Haman. We think Haman’s wife Zeresh represents the Papacy of the latter days (the false prophet of Revelation 16:13-16 who will be instrumental, through the frog spirit, in bringing Gog and the nations to the battle of Armageddon)
Building such a massive gallows fifty cubits high in Shushan must have made for a noisy night. Maybe that’s what roused the King leading him to remember the service which Mordecai had rendered him.
“On that night could not the king sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles; and they were read before the king” (Est. 6:1).
This typifies (we think) the ‘awakening’ of God—Yahweh— in the end of the gentile night which has prevailed for so long over the kingship of Israel. Thus God will “remember the Land” (Lev. 26:42) and His “covenant” (Ezek. 16:60) and the glory due to Christ’s Kingship over Israel. So in type:
“And it was found written, that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s chamberlains, the keepers of the door, who sought to lay hand on the king Ahasuerus. And the king said, What honour and dignity hath been done to Mordecai for this? Then said the king’s servants that ministered unto him, There is nothing done for him. And the king said, Who is in the court? Now Haman was come into the outward court of the king’s house, to speak unto the king to hang Mordecai on the gallows that he had prepared for him” (Est. 6:2-4)
This brings us up to the end-times, when Gog, as the latter day “king of the north” has reached the pinnacle of his success, but is about to see that ‘Heaven’ is turning against him and that God is now favourable to the exaltation of the Kingship of Christ, as typified in Mordecai, as follows:
“Then the king said to Haman, Make haste, and take the apparel and the horse, as thou hast said, and do even so to Mordecai the Jew, that sitteth at the king’s gate: let nothing fail of all that thou hast spoken. Then took Haman the apparel and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and brought him on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him, Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour” (Est. 6:10-11).
We think that there will be divine intervention in the earth that makes Gog- the antitype of Haman- feel that heaven now favours the restoration of the kingdom to Israel. We think that event is foretold in Psalm 83 which seems to speak of a final Arab-Israel war, where Israel are saved by divine intervention as follows:
“So persecute them with thy tempest, and make them afraid with thy storm. Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, O Lord. Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish: That men may know that thou, whose name alone is Yahweh, art the most high over all the earth”. (Psa. 83:15-18)
By this time the Russian Gog will have taken northern Europe, but the above events in the Middle East will draw him down unto the battle of Armageddon, or in the Type the second “banquet of wine”:
“And Haman told Zeresh his wife and all his friends every thing that had befallen him. Then said his wise men and Zeresh his wife unto him, If Mordecai be of the seed of the Jews, before whom thou hast begun to fall, thou shalt not prevail against him, but shalt surely fall before him. And while they were yet talking with him, came the king’s chamberlains, and hasted to bring Haman unto the banquet that Esther had prepared. (Est. 6:13-14)
This inference we have also in Eze 38:4 And I will turn thee back, and put hooks into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed with all sorts of armour, even a great company with bucklers and shields, all of them handling swords:”
There will be much bloodshed of Gog’s forces, typified in the banquet of wine, as:
“And the king said again unto Esther on the second day at the banquet of wine, What is thy petition, queen Esther? and it shall be granted thee: and what is thy request? and it shall be performed, even to the half of the kingdom. Then Esther the queen answered and said, If I have found favour in thy sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request: For we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my tongue, although the enemy could not countervail the king’s damage. Then the king Ahasuerus answered and said unto Esther the queen, Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so? And Esther said, The adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman. Then Haman was afraid before the king and the queen” (Est. 7:2-6)
Christ’s war against Gog will begin to the south of Israel, where he will slaughter a large detachment of Gog’s forces at Bozra as:
“Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment” (Isa. 63:1-3)
Another prophecy of this time is Isaiah 49:
“But thus saith the Lord, Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered: for I will contend with him that contendeth with thee, and I will save thy children. And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh; and they shall be drunken with their own blood, as with sweet wine: and all flesh shall know that I the Lord am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob” (Isa.. 40:25-26)
Now back to the type in Esther:
“So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath pacified” (Est. 7:10)
The last two days of Haman’s life were very eventful. In 2 Peter 3:8 it says; “one day is with the Lord as a thousand years”; example: the seven literal days of creation mirror also the seven thousand years till the end of the millennium. In the type of Esther it is possible to see the two eventful days from Queen Esther going in to the king to the the hanging of Haman, as relating to the period from Jesus to the the overthrow of Gog which will be completed within two thousand years.
So in the types of Esther we are at the point where Christ assumes the throne of David over Israel. This is the ultimate victory over the enemies of Israel represented in Agag and the Amalekites. This the kingship over Israel is foretold in:
“He shall pour the water out of his buckets, and his seed shall be in many waters, and his king shall be higher than Agag, and his kingdom shall be exalted” (Num. 24:7)
And so in the type Mordecai is exalted over the house of “Haman the Agagite”:
“On that day did the king Ahasuerus give the house of Haman the Jews’ enemy unto Esther the queen. And Mordecai came before the king; for Esther had told what he was unto her. And the king took off his ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it unto Mordecai. And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman” (Est. 8:1-2).
Christ in Zion will reverse the murderous antisemitism of the gentiles, and so in the type
“And Esther spake yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Jews. Then the king held out the golden sceptre toward Esther. So Esther arose, and stood before the king, And said, If it please the king, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the thing seem right before the king, and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised by Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to destroy the Jews which are in all the king’s provinces” (Est. 8:3-5)
So Mordecai and Esther together (now typifying Christ as the King/Priest in Zion) issue a decree in favour of the Jews, to counter the decree of Haman. This would relate to the preaching of the Aionian Gospel which, after Gog’s overthrow will gave the nations the choice of submission to Israel or destruction (Rev.14:6):
“The copy of the writing for a commandment to be given in every province was published unto all people, and that the Jews should be ready against that day to avenge themselves on their enemies.” (Est. 8:13)
The antitype of this is found in the prophets:
“The portion of Jacob is not like them; for he is the former of all things: and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: the Lord of hosts is his name. Thou art my battle axe and weapons of war: for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms” (Jer. 51:19-20).
The Kingship of Christ is typified in Esther 8:15-17:
“And Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a garment of fine linen and purple: and the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad. The Jews had light, and gladness, and joy, and honour. And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, the Jews had joy and gladness, a feast and a good day. And many of the people of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews fell upon them.” ( Est. 8:15-17)
In antitype we have such prophecies as Zechariah 8:
“Thus saith the Lord of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.”
In the slaughter of the anti-Semites, the 10 sons of Haman were executed, representing the 10 principle kings of Europe (that will re emerge):
“The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews, slew they; but on the spoil laid they not their hand.” (Est. 9:10)
And so the antitype:
“And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast. These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful” (Rev. 17:12-14).
So finally we see that “Mordecai the Jew” is a fitting type of the ‘ Kingship’ to be fulfilled in Christ:
“For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed” (Est. 10:3).
As a Postscript we add the observation that, in the Hebrew the term “Haman..the Agagite” (Es. 3:1) is similar to “Hamangog” the burial place of Gog and his forces (Ezekiel 19:11).
Hamon-gog הֲמ֥וֹן גּֽוֹג
Hamon the Agagite הָמָ֧ן הָ אֲגָגִ֖ י